There are many promising psychological interventions on the horizon, but there is no clear methodology for preparing them to be scaled up. Drawing on design thinking, the present research formalizes a methodology for redesigning and tailoring initial interventions. We test the methodology using the case of fixed versus growth mindsets during the transition to high school. Qualitative inquiry and rapid, iterative, randomized “A/B” experiments were conducted with ~3,000 participants to inform intervention revisions for this population. Next, two experimental evaluations showed that the revised growth mindset intervention was an improvement over previous versions in terms of short-term proxy outcomes (Study 1, N=7,501), and it improved 9th grade core-course GPA and reduced D/F GPAs for lower achieving students when delivered via the Internet under routine conditions with ~95% of students at 10 schools (Study 2, N=3,676). Although the intervention could still be improved even further, the current research provides a model for how to improve and scale interventions that begin to address pressing educational problems. It also provides insight into how to teach a growth mindset more effectively.
Yeager et al.’s study provided a model for MARIO when defining what innovation within the Framework might look like. The direct application of a design thinking process to improve educational outcomes is discussed and creates a potential roadmap to be replicated by individual educators.
This book provides information on what works in education, how teachers can find what works, how educational research can find its way into classrooms, and how teachers can apply it to help individual students. Data come from a meta-analysis of research studies on instructional strategies that could be used by K-12 teachers. Nine research-based teaching strategies that have a positive effect on student learning are examined: identifying similarities and differences; summarizing and note taking; reinforcing effort and providing recognition; homework and practice; nonlinguistic representations; cooperative learning; setting objectives and providing feedback; generating and testing hypotheses; and questions, cues, and advance organizers. For each strategy, the book provides statistical effect sizes and shows how they translate into percentile gains for students. Each chapter presents extended classroom examples of teachers and students in action; models of successful instruction; and a variety of frames, rubrics, organizers, and charts to help teachers plan and implement the strategies. After describing the strategies, the book examines specific applications (teaching specific types of knowledge and using the nine categories in instructional planning). An appendix presents a conversion table for effect size/percentile gain. (Contains approximately 290 references.) (SM)
Marzano et al.’s work has deeply informed the high-impact learning strategies highlighted throughout the MARIO Framework and contributed to the innovative nature of the framework itself.